||Acetobacter aceti is Gram stain negative,
aerobic and motile with peritrichous flagella. Acetobacter
aceti is a common contaminant in all industrial fermentation
facilities and is responsible for generating turbidity,
ropiness, discoloration, and off-flavors in beer.
||Acetobacter pasteurianus is Gram stain negative and aerobic. Acetobacter pasteurianus
is used to make various types of vinegars. Alcohol is
first formed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
and the ‘must’ is then inoculated with acetic acid bacteria
||Acidiphilium organovorum is Gram stain negative and aerobic. Acidiphilium organovorum
is an acidophilic heterotroph isolated from a Thiobacillus
||Acidocella facilis is Gram stain negative
and aerobic. Acidocella facilis is commonly found
in association with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in
acidic environments where ore deposits are present.
||Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is Gram stain negative, aerobic, and non-motile. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
has been investigated for use in crude oil cleanup.
||Acinetobacter johnsonii is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and non-motile.
||Acinetobacter lwoffii is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and non-motile. Acinetobacter lwoffii
has been more commonly associated with meningitis than
other Acinetobacter species.
||Actinobacillus suis is Gram stain negative
and aerobic. Actinobacillus suis is an opportunistic
pathogen of conventionally reared swine that can cause
disease following stress.
||Aeromonas caviae is a gram negative,
motile, facultative anaerobe. Aeromonas caviae
is of concern as a food borne illness.
||Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative,
motile, facultative anaerobe. Aeromonas hydrophila
is a species of bacterium that is present in all freshwater
environments and in brackish water.
||Aeropyrum pernix is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and non-motile. Aeropyrum pernix is a
hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows at temperatures
up to 100oC.
||Alcaligenes denitrificans is Gram stain negative and aerobic but is capable of. anaerobic growth
||Alcaligenes faecalis is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and motile. Alcaligenes faecalis has been
used for the production of non-standard amino acids.
||Alteromonas macleodii is Gram stain negative
and motile. A subspecies of Alteromonas macleodii
has been reported to secrete a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide
in culture. This exopolysaccharide has similarities to
xanthan, another bacterial polysaccharide of industrial
||Anabaena cylindrica is aerobic and
motile via gliding motility. Hydrogen production by Anabaena
cylindrica is being investigated for the development
of a biophotolysis system.
||Anabaena flos-aquae is aerobic and
motile via gliding motility. Anabaena flos-aquae
has been investigated for production of intracellular
gas vesicles as potential oxygen microcarriers.
||Anabaena variabilis is aerobic and
motile via gliding motility. Anabaena variabilis
is being investigated for the production of hydrogen.
||Aquaspirillum serpens is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and motile. Aquaspirillum serpens is used
a number of early educational settings.
||Arthrobacter aurescens is Gram stain positive
and aerobic. Strains of Arthrobacter aurescens
have been shown to metabolize s-triazine compounds, which
are are common starting materials for the synthesis of
pesticides, plastic resins, dyes, and explosives. Thus,
they have potential importance in bioremediation.
||Arthrobacter citreus is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Arthrobacter citreus Has been
shown to metabolize gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH).
||Arthrobacter luteus is Gram stain positive
||Arthrobacter protophormiae is Gram stain positive, aerobic, and non-motile. Arthrobacter protophormiae
is used for the bioremediation of chlorinated and nitroaromatic
||Avibacterium paragallinarum is Gram stain negative and is pathogenic to chickens and other birds.
||Bacillus aquaemaris is gram postive
and was isolated from seawater of a tidal flat of the
Yellow Sea in Korea.
||Bacillus caldolyticus is gram positve
and aerobic. Cold-shock proteins from Bacillus caldolyticus
may have some industrial applications.
||Bacillus cereus is positive, motile,
facultative anaerobe. Bacillus cereus spores are
widespread and multiplication has been observed primarily
||Bacillus circulans is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and has variable motility. Bacillus circulans
is used for producing L-glutamic acid.
||Bacillus coagulans is a gram positive,
motile, facultative anaerobe. Bacillus coagulans
is an acid-tolerant and heat-resistant microbes that can
spoil acidic foods.
||Bacillus firmus is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus firmus is a phyto-hormone
producing and phosphate solublizing bacteria.
||Bacillus fusiformis is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile.
||Bacillus globigii is Gram stain positive
and is a common soil and water saprophyte.
||Bacillus lentus is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and produces a commercially important alkaline
||Bacillus licheniformis is Gram stain positive,
motile, facultative anaerobe. Bacillus licheniformis
||Bacillus megaterium is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus megaterium produces
penicillin amidase for constructing penicillins, enzymes
for modifying corticosteroids, and several amino acid
||Bacillus mycoides is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus mycoides is nearing
the market as a biological pesticide.
||Bacillus pumilus is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus pumilus is used for
alkaline protease production, in environmental decontamination
of dioxins, and in the baking industry.
||Bacillus schlegelii is Gram stain positive
and aerobic. Bacillus schlegelii can be isolated
from lake mud in Switzerland and also from geothermally
heated antarctic soil.
||Bacillus sphaericus is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus sphaericus based
insecticides are available.
||Bacillus subtilis is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and motile. Bacillus subtilis is one of
the most widely used bacteria for the production of enzymes
and specialty chemicals. Industrial applications include
production of amylase, protease, inosine, ribosides, and
||Bacteroides caccae is Gram stain negative
and aerobic. Bacteroides caccae was isolated from
||Bacteroides fragilis is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and non-motile. It has been reported that thirty
to fifty percent of fecal matter is Bacteroides fragilis.
||Bifidobacterium breve is Gram stain positive,
aerobic, and non-motile. Bifidobacteria including
Bifidobacterium breve have been used as probiotics.
||Brevibacillus brevis is Gram stain positive
and aerobic. Brevibacillus brevis is being investigated
for use as a biocontrol agent.
||Brevibacillus centrosporus is Gram stain positive and was reclassified from Bacillus centrosporus.
||Brevibacillus laterosporus is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Brevibacillus laterosporus
has toxicity for larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti,
Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens.
||Brevibacterium linens is Gram stain positive,
aerobic and non-motile. Brevibacterium linens is
a surface microorganism that is important in chesse production
and is present in the smear of surface-ripened cheeses.
||Brevundimonas diminuta is Gram stain negative,
aerobic and motile. Brevundimonas diminuta is commonly
used as a test organism for the efficiency of water filters
due to the small size of the bacterium (1/3 the size of
the size of the EPA bacteria test organism).
||Brevundimonas vesicularis is Gram stain negative, aerobic and motile. Brevundimonas vesicularis
has been associated with slime deposits on machines in
||Caryophanon latum is Gram stain positive,
anaerobic, and motile. Caryophanon latum is commonly
isolated from bovine feces.
||Chryseobacterium balustinum is a
gram negative facultative anaerobe. Chryseobacterium
balustinum was reclassified from Flavobacterium
||Citrobacter freundii is Gram stain negative,
aerobic, and motile (most). Citrobacter freundii
has been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid
(used in tannerys).
||Clostridium acetobutylicum is Gram stain positive, anaerobic, and motile. Clostridium acetobutylicum
is used in the production of acetone and butanol in fermentation
systems using maize mash, molasses, or other feedstocks.
||Clostridium formicoaceticum is Gram stain positive and anaerobic. Clostridium formicoaceticum
metabolises aromatic aldehydes.
||Clostridium sporogenes is Gram stain positive,
anaerobic, and motile. Clostridium sporogenes is
the organism most frequently used for conducting inoculated
pack studies in low acid foods.
||Coccochloris elabens is aerobic and
||Corynebacterium flavescens is Gram stain positive and aerobic. Corynebacterium flavescens
can be isolated from chesse.
||Corynebacterium variablile is a gram
positive facultative anaerobe. Corynebacterium variablile
is sometimes used to spray smear chesses for ripening.
||Curtobacterium albidum is Gram stain positive
and aerobic. Curtobacterium albidum was reclassified
from Brevibacterium albidum.
||Curtobacterium citreum is Gram stain positive
and aerobic. Curtobacterium citreum has been isolated
from plants but it is not a plant pathogen.